Another Blog from UK Partnerships for Christ (www.upfc.org.uk)

New World Translation and the Name Jehovah.

Hi there please enjoy this excelent article from a friend of mine looking at the Jehovah’s Witnesses constant use of the name Jehovah for God and if this is the correct name to use for Him, please comment with your thoughts after.

Where did the name Jehovah come from? Most scholars believe the name “Jehovah”
to be a late (ca. 1100 CE) hybrid form derived by combining the Latin letters JHVH
with the vowels of Adonai. God’s name in the Old Testament was written as the
Tetragrammaton or YHWH. Since the Jews considered this name sacred, they would
never say it. Instead, they put the vowel sounds of Adonai (Lord) over the YHWH to
encourage the reader to say Adonai. This can be seen in the early ancient manuscripts.
The Latin form of this was written JHVH.

This combination of JHVH and vowel signs from Adonai (a, o and a) make up the
incorrect transliteration of JaHoVaH. This invalid transliteration was picked up in 1278
and appeared in Latin in the work Pugio fidei (Dagger of Faith), by Raymundus Martini,
a Spanish Monk. This was the first place it ever appeared. It then became Anglicized and
made its way into the King James Bible in 7 places as Jehovah.

The New World Translation uses the invalid transliteration of the name Jehovah 6973
times in the Old Testament and 237 times in the New Testament.

What is God’s real name? What does He want His people to call Him? What did Jesus
as our perfect example tell us to call God? In the New Testament, God is referred to
as “Father” over 250 times. Jesus refers to Him as “Father” about 179 times. The apostle
Paul (and other apostles) also refers to God as “Father” (Abba in Rom. 8:15 and Gal.
4:6). But not once did any New Testament author use the Hebrew Tetragrammaton
(“YHWH”) to refer to God nor the name Jehovah.

What does “hallowed be thy name” mean in the Lord’s Prayer in Matthew 6:9-13. This means
respect God’s real name as Father. This is what Jesus told us to call Him.

What does “made His name manifest” mean in John 17:6? Manifest means make known.
So Jesus made God’s name known to us. What is his name? Jesus said we should call him
Father.

It is disrespectful to call God by any name other than what Jesus told us to call Him.
Jesus told us everything we need to know. John 10:29-30 “My Father, who has given
them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father’s hand.
30 I and the Father are one.”

Jesus always used the name Father or Lord! What should His children call God?

What did Jesus as our perfect example tell us to call God? In the New Testament, God
is referred to as “Father” over 250 times. Jesus refers to Him as “Father” about 179
times. The apostle Paul (and other apostles) also refer to God as “Father” (Abba in
Romans. 8:15 and Galatians. 4:6). But not once did any New Testament author use the Hebrew
Tetragrammaton (“YHWH”) or name Jehovah to refer to God.

GT answer to question by John 3:16: Why didn’t Jesus teach his disciples

to pray “Our Jehovah”? Apart from the fact that Jewish people never wrote
down or spoke the Divine Name (they only wrote the consonants YHWH which are
unpronouncable), there is another significant reason why Jesus told us to pray to “Our
Father.” Jesus introduced a brand new concept to the Jewish people – that they could
enter into relationship with Yahweh, that he could be their heavenly Father and they
could become his children. The introduction to this prayer is all about our relationship
with our heavenly Father.

Romans 8:15-16: “…you received the spirit of sonship. And by him [the Spirit of God]
we cry “Abba, Father.” Galatians 3:26: “You are all sons of God through faith in Jesus
Christ.” Galatians 4:4-7: “God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under law, that
we might receive the full rights of sons. Because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of
his Son into our hearts, the Spirit who calls out “Abba, Father.” So you are no longer a
slave, but a son; and since you are a son, God has made you also an heir.”

This means that to every Christian who is born again by the Holy Spirit, they enter into a
special relationship with God – they are no longer slaves (to sin and to the law) but they
become children of God, heirs to the promise, because the Son of God has set them
free (from sin).

The tragedy is that 99.9% of all Jehovah’s Witnesses have been told they cannot be
born again by the Holy Spirit, that only a mere 144,000 people since the time of Jesus
can become heirs to the promise. They have been excluded, shut out, of the new
covenant and the Kingdom of Heaven.

With regard to all the other questions, the answer is clear – it is the name of JESUS that
saves and, just like the early Christians, we are to be witnesses to Jesus.

P.S. Interesting that Romans 8 uses the expression the Spirit of God and Galatians 4
uses the expression the Spirit of his Son.

1 Corinthians 1:2 – Call upon the name of the Lord: http://carm.org/religious-
movements/jehovahs-witnesses/1-cor-12-call-upon-name-lord-jesus

Jehovah’s Witnesses introduced the name ‘Jehovah’ in their New World Translation
(NWT) because they wish to differentiate themselves from what they refer to
as ‘Christendom’ by claiming they are the only people who use the Divine Name.

The Foreword (page 25) of the 1950 NWT of the Christian Greek Scriptures says this
about the Divine Name: “While inclining to view the pronunciation ‘Yah.weh’ as the
more correct way, we have retained the form ‘Jehovah’ because of people’s familiarity
with it since the 14th century. Moreover, it preserves, equally with other forms, the four
letters of the Tetragrammaton JHVH.” Interestingly, this admission was removed from
the 1961, 1970 and 1984 editions of the NWT. However, there is a fatal flaw in stating
that the Tetragrammaton (Divine Name) is JHVH. There is no hard, ‘Jay’ sound in the
Hebrew language. The Tetragrammaton is YHWH and is unpronounceable.

As to the origins of the name Jehovah, this is explained on page 18 of their book, ‘Let
Your Name Be Sanctified’, published in 1961: “All available evidence is that a Roman
Catholic clergyman introduced that pronunciation.” That Roman Catholic clergyman was

Raymundus Martini, a Dominican monk, who had been commissioned by the Pope to
translate the Bible into Latin. The first recorded use of the name Jehovah occurred in
1270 AD in his book ‘Pugeo Fidei’.

The Douay-Rheims Bible says this about the name of God (Adonai) in Exodus
3:14: “The name, which is in the Hebrew text, is that most proper name of God, which
signifieth his eternal, self-existent being. Exodus 3:14, which the Jews out of reverence
never pronounce; but, instead of it, whenever it occurs in the Bible, they read Adonai,
which signifies the Lord; and, therefore, they put the points or vowels, which belong
to the name Adonai, to the four letters of that other ineffable name Jod, He, Vau, He.
Hence, SOME MODERNS HAVE FRAMED THE NAME JEHOVAH, UNKNOWN TO
ALL THE ANCIENTS, WHETHER JEWS OR CHRISTIANS; for the true pronunciation of
the name, which is in the Hebrew text, by long disuse, is now quite lost.” (Capital letters
added for emphasis)

The Wycliffe Bible Encyclopaedia (1975) Volume 2, page 690, says: “The Name par
excellence for the Creator of Israel is Yahweh, found 6,823 times in the Old Testament.
Through Israyl’s deliverance from bondage in Egypt, adoption as a nation, and guidance
to the Promised Land, the Redeemer-Creator is especially known by this Name.”

Joseph Rotherham says this in the Introduction to the Emphasized Bible, A New
Translation (Standard Publishing Co) 1902 – The Incommunicable Name – The Name
Suppressed: “It is willingly admitted that the suppression has not been absolute; at
least so far as Hebrew and English are concerned. The Name, in its four essential
letters (YHWH), was reverently transcribed by the Hebrew copyist, and therefore was
necessarily placed before the eye of the Hebrew reader. The latter, however, was
instructed not to pronounce it, but to utter instead a less sacred name – Adonay or
Elohim. In this way The Name was not suffered to reach the ear of the listener. To that
degree it was suppressed. The Septuagint, or ancient Greek version (LXX), made the
concealment complete by regularly substituting Kurios; as the Vulgate, in like manner,
employed Dominus; both Kurios and Dominus having at the same time their own
proper service to render as correctly answering to the Hebrew Adonay, confessedly
meaning ‘Lord’. The English versions do nearly the same things, in rendering The
Name as LORD, and occasionally GOD; these terms also having their own rightful
office to fill as fitly representing the Hebrew titles Adonay and Elohim and El so that the
Tetragrammaton is nearly hidden in our public English versions. ‘Confusion’, then, is
a term not a whit too strong to apply to these varying devices. No wonder that even
intelligent and educated people are continually forgetting what they have heard or read
concerning so involved a matter.”

NOTE: Exodus 3:14 translated in Rotherham version as: “I will become whatsoever I
please” NWT: “I shall prove to be what I shall prove to be.” NIV & KJAV: “I am that I am.”

Conclusion: When the NWT inserts the name Jehovah, they are not restoring the Divine
Name but are introducing an English translation of a Latin name that did not exist prior to
1270 AD. The Divine Name, or Tetragrammaton, is the unpronounceable YHWH.
Source: http://www.yahweh.com/NAME/theName2.html

1 July 2010 Watchtower – Do you know God by name?

Page 3 – Moses addressed God as Jehovah (in Exodus 4:10). Wrong. The
name ‘Jehovah’ did not exist then.

Page 4 – God’s name means ‘I shall prove to be what I shall prove to be’ (Exodus 3:14)
Wrong. God revealed himself to Moses as ‘I AM THAT I AM’

Page 4 – The beauty of God’s personality is hidden from those who do not know him
by name. Wrong. Moses knew God as the ‘I Am’, the eternal Being. And the Hebrew
believers knew a great deal about God’s qualities from the many other names God used
to describe Himself with. See Got Questions Names of God print-out.

Page 5 – Satan has used false religion to hinder people from coming to know God by
name. For example, in ancient times some Jews chose to ignore the inspired Scriptures
in favour of the tradition that called for avoiding the use of God’s name…. Doubtless, this
practice contributed to a tragic decline in spirituality… Many lost out on the benefits of a
close personal relationship with God. Misrepresentation.

Page 6 – Justin Martyr was a nominal Christian. Really? That would be the same Justin
Martyr who died about 165 AD and who Jehovah’s Witnesses partially quote from in
their booklet attacking the Trinity doctrine, claiming he did not believe Jesus to be God.
Ah, someone must have brought to their attention the fact that their mangled, partial
quotation is misleading, because a full quote shows that he believed that it was Jesus
Christ who spoke to Moses – the Word of God who IS God! Yes, their idea of a nominal
Christian is someone who believes John 1:1 says that the Word is God – with a capital
G. But up until now Justin was hailed by them as a supporter of their anti-trinitarianism?

Pages 6 & 7 – Apostate Christians deliberately took out ‘Jehovah’ from the New
Testament and substituted Ky’r.os, the Greek word for Lord. Apostate Jewish scribes
replaced the divine name with Adho.nai (Hebrew) more than 130 times. Evidence? One
of God’s names, YHWH (without vowels) certainly appears very often in the Hebrew
scriptures but it never appeared, not even once, in the Greek scriptures. It was not
deliberately removed from the Greek scriptures. It is only when Jesus is seen to be the
one Lord who is to be worshipped that we are helped to grasp that Jesus is God! The
NWT Greek scriptures have been changed deliberately by JW leaders to take away from
the deity of Christ by it stating Lord when it refers to Christ being worshipped as God but
by stating Jehovah when it is the Father being worshipped. Placing the name Jehovah
in the New Testament (where it does not belong) is done deliberately by Jehovah’s
Witnesses to ensure nobody realises who Jesus really is. The Tetragram is not to be
found in the earliest Greek manuscripts.

Page 7 – Some translations render God’s name ‘Yahweh’. Note: The Foreword (page
25) of the 1950 New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures said this about
the Divine Name: “While inclining to view the pronunciation ‘Yah.weh’ as the more
correct way, we have retained the form ‘Jehovah’ because of people’s familiarity with it
since the 14th century.” But the name ‘Jehovah’ was completely unknown prior to then!
Let Your Name Be Sanctified, page 18, says: “All available evidence is that a Roman
Catholic clergyman introduced that pronunciation.” That Roman Catholic clergyman was
Raymundus Martini, a Dominican monk, who had been commissioned by the Pope to
translate the Bible into Latin. The first recorded use of the name Jehovah occurred in
1270 AD in his book ‘Pugeo Fidei’. Prior to that, the name Jehovah was unknown to all

the ancients, whether Jews or Christians.

Page 9 – Deleting God’s name and replacing it with ‘LORD’ hinders readers from truly
knowing who God is. Untrue. The beauty of God’s personality is hidden from those who
cannot call Him ‘Father’. What use is it to speak a Roman Catholic anglicisation of the
Tetragram (YHWH) if you are not adopted into God’s family, which is the only way of
coming to know Him as ‘Abba’? (Romans 8)

http://www.yahweh.com/NAME/theName2.html
http://www.tetragrammaton.org/wtarticle.html
http://www.gotquestions.org/names-of-God.html
http://www.gotquestions.org/YHWH-tetragrammaton.html

Questions to ask re 1 July 2010 Watchtower – Do you know God by name?

Exodus 3:14 (page 4): King James Authorised Version (KJAV) and New International
Version (NIV) translate this as: “I AM THAT I AM”

New World Translation (NWT) translation: “I shall prove to be what I shall prove to be”

Rotherhams (Emphasised Bible, 1902?) translation: “I will become whatsoever I please”

Yet Jesus said, in John 8:58 “Before Abraham was born, I am!” Not, I shall or I will.
How is this rendered in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation (KIT)?

“Justin Martyr was a nominal Christian” (page 6): Is this the same Justin Martyr
(died circa 165 AD) partially quoted in the Trinity booklet attacking the Trinity, where they
claim Justin Martyr did not believe Jesus to be a God? Why use the words of a ‘nominal
Christian’ to support anti-trinitarianism then denounce same as a ‘nominal’ Christian?

Have you seen the full quotation from Justin Martyr where he goes on to say he believes
it was Jesus who spoke to Moses?

“Apostate Christians deliberately took out ‘Jehovah’ from the New Testament and
substituted Ky’r.os, the Greek word for Lord.” (page 6)

Who were these ‘apostate’ Christians, which manuscripts prove this (dated)?

YHWH was never used in the Greek manuscripts – can’t take out what was never there.

Apostate Jewish scribes replaced the Divine Name with Adho.nai more than 130
times.” (page 7)

Who were these ‘apostate’ Jewish scribes, where did they replace the divine name and
what Hebrew manuscripts prove this (dated)?

Can you confirm if this was printed on page 25 (the foreword) of the 1950 NWT of the
Christian Greek Scriptures: “While inclining to view the pronunciation ‘Yah.weh’ as the
more correct way, we have retained the form ‘Jehovah’ because of people’s familiarity
with it since the 14th century.”

And why was this removed from the 1961, 1970 and 1984 editions?

Why is Ky’r.os (Lord) not consistently removed throughout the NWT Greek Scriptures?
What does the KIT show were the original Greek words used in the earliest manuscripts
when talking about Jehovah and Jesus? Bear in mind that YHWH was not used in the
Greek Scriptures (New Testament).

Can you confirm if this was printed on page 18 of the book ‘Let Your Name Be
Sanctified’: “All available evidence is that a Roman Catholic clergyman introduced that
pronunciation” (Jehovah).

Do you know how he got from YHWH to Jehovah?

Do you know he was a Dominican monk called Raymundus Martini, commissioned by
the Pope to translate the Bible into Latin and that, prior to 1270 AD, the name Jehovah
was unknown to any Jew or Christian?

Was the NWT Greek Scriptures based on the translation by Catholic scholars Westcott
and Hort?

Which Greek manuscripts (dated) first show the name of God as YHWH used in the
New Testament?

Who were the NWT translators and what were there qualifications in Hebrew/Greek?

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4 Responses »

  1. Very interesting, and some excellent tools in here to use when speaking to Hehovas Witnesses. Bit disappointed that it references last years Watchtower and not a more recent one, but the points detailed here are useful for general evangelism to JWs.

  2. So much information! I could do with a summary. 🙂 To be honest though, I think that as an ex JW it’s just overwhelming to see how clever, deviant and successful this organisation is at deliberately lying to its members and how easy it is to control peoples minds. I’m sickened and I thank you for the continuing illumination.

  3. I love to make a big deal about Phil 2:9 and Acts 4:12 with JWs. Then ask them what is the Gospel, after they go on and on about the new kingdom and Other WT doctrine we look at 1 Cor 15:1-4 and then I explain why they don’t know the gospel from 2 Cor 4:3-6.

  4. If you cannot love someone who calls God by one name but rather choose to focus on the name you believe is acceptable….then, quite possibly, you know not God, no matter what you name Him! Or perhaps, you, as I, have much more to learn and maybe more to let go of.
    If there were any the Lord Jesus rebuked, it was the religious who were more concerned with the Law than knowing God.

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